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The Earldom of Mar

This is the geneoalogy of the Earldom of Mar. Please pay attention to the blue underlined text with the small superscript numbers. These are hyperlinks to notes on the text. Information on this and the page of notes was taken from The Complete Peerage, or a history of the House of Lords and all its memebers from the earliest times.

Mar with Buchan (the territory comprising that now covered by the counties of Aberdeen and Banif) formed one of the seven original Earldoms of Scotland, the holders of which were styled Mormaers in the 10th and 11th centuries, and later called Earls. Before the 12th century Buchan had become separated from Mar. This then is the history and genealogy of the Earldom of Mar.

1. RODERICK, RUADRI or ROTHRI, Mormaer of Mar, witnessed, circa 1114 or 1115, the foundation charter of Scone as Rothri comes. 1 As such he also witnessed, between 1124 and 1129, King David's charter to Dunfermune Abbey; and therefore may be considered to have been EARL OF MAR; and in 1131-1132, as Ruadri, Mormaer of Mar, he witnessed a charter of Gartrait or Gratney, Mormaer of Buchan, to the monastery of Deer.

2. MORGUND or MORORUND MAC GYLOCHER, EARL OF MAR.2 As Morgund Comes he witnessed a charter of David I and his son Henry to Dunfermune before 1152, and a confirmation charter to Dunfermune by Malcolm IV between 1154 and 1158. As Moregrundus comes de Mar he granted the church of Tarland to the priory of St. Andrews between 1165 and 1177. He and his wife Agnes made several grants to St. Andrews, and directed they should be buried there, wherever in Scotland they might die. She, as Agnes, comitissa de Mar, made a grant thereto of land in Inverinche.3 His legitimacy was questioned long after his death, but appears to have been upheld. He d. before 30 Mar. 1183.4

3. GILCHRIST, EARL OF MAR. His paternity is not known; he probably represented the succession opposed in hereditary claim to that of Earl Morgund; but the possibility that he was a son of Morgund cannot be altogether excluded. With Malcolm and James, sons of Morgund, he witnessed the foundation charter of the hospital of St. Peter, Aberdeen, between 1182 and 1199.5 He was founder of the priory of Monymusk, and a benefactor of Arbroath. It has been asserted that he m. Orabilis, 6 dau. of Nes son of William, of Leuchars, whose charter to St. Andrews Priory he attested. The latest evidence found of Gilchrist's existence is in the breviate of a charter executed between 1204 and 1211.

4. DUNCAN, EARL OF MAR, one of the yr. sons, though possibly 1st legit. son, of Earl Morgund and Countess Agnes,7 both abovenarned, and ancestor of the succeeding Earls. He witnessed, still as Duncan s. of Morgund, a charter of Alexander II, 15 May 1222. The earliest date known of his possession of the Earldom is that of a charter, 29 Aug. 1228, wherein he is called Earl Duncan, son of Morgunt. No record has been found of the grounds of his succession. His title was disputed by Thomas de Lundin, Doorward of Scotland, before 1231, when Thomas died. An agreement is8 alleged to have been made then. Earl Duncan witnessed the pact made between the Kings of England and Scotland, in the presence of the papal legate, at York on the Friday before Michaelmas 1237. He was a benefactor of Monymusk, the cathedral church of Aberdeen, where he desired to be bar., and the priory of St. Andrews. He was living in 1242, but dead before 7 Feb. 1243/4.

5. WILLIAM, EARL OF MAR s. and h. He may have been the William de Mar who attested charters of Alexander II, 16 May 1234 and 28 Apr. 1240. As William, Earl of Mar, he witnessed a royal charter of 7 Feb. 1243/4, and in Sept. of that year was one of the guarantors of Alexander's confirmation of the pact of 1237. He became Chamberlain to Alexander III about 1252. In or before 1254 Alan Durward unsuccessfully revived his father's claim9 to the Earldom of Mar. In Sept. 1255 the Earl was to visit Henry III, then in the North upon the affairs of Scotland; but the existing regency, to which Mar belonged, was displaced at the instance of the English King, and others (among whom was Alan Durward) were appointed till the Scottish King should come of age. In Dec. following the Earl was again to visit Henry III in England. In 1258 his party returned to power (Durward then acting with them), and the Earl was again Chamberlain from about 1262 to 1264, and Sheriff of Dunbarton 1264-1266. He m., 1stly, Elizabeth, dau. of William (Comyn), EARL OF BUCHAN, by Margaret, suo jure COUNTESS OF BUCHAN. She d. 1267. He m., 2ndly, Muriel, 1st dau. of Malise, Earl of Strathern, by Marjory, dau. and coh. of Robert de Muschamp. He d. (probably in the summer of) 1281. His widow, who was aged 10 in 1254/5, and who, only a few months before her death, did homageto Edward I, d. between 16 May and 12 Nov. 1291.

6. DONALD, EARL OF MAR, s. and h. by 1st wife, was knighted by Alexander III at Scone, 29 Sep. 1270. He had succeeded to the Earldom by 25 July 1281, when he swore at Roxburgh to observe the terms of the marriage contract between Princess Margaret and King Eric of Norway. He was one of the magnates who, after the death of King Alexander, acknowledged Margaret, dau. of the said Princess, as heir to the throne of Scotland, at Scone, 5 Feb. 1283/4; and of those who, in their own name and the name of the com- munity of the realm of Scotland, in a convention at Brigham, 17 Mar. 1289/90, confirmed the treaty of marriage between the said Margaret of Norway, then Queen of Scotland, and Edward, son of Edward I. After Queen Margaret's death in 1290 the Earl of Mar became a strong Supporter of Bruce's claims, and was one of the seven earls 10 whose action in1290 appears to have been the first step taken to appeal for a decision to the King of England as overlord. He swore fealty to Edward I as his overlord 13 June 1291. The Earl of Mar was one of the Scottish nobles summoned to accompany Edward to Gascony, Sep. 1294. 11 He was active in the Scottish revolt against England, and was taken prisoner at, or after, the battle of Dunbar, 27 Apr. 1296; but, on the submission of Baliol, he did homage at Montrose in July following, and on 31 July- 1 Aug. Edward visited him at his castle of Kudrummy. On 28 Aug. he did homage again at Benvick. On 23 June 1297, at Westminster, he took an oath to serve Edward against the King of France. The following month he sent a report to the King about the state of the magnates in the North, and the 23th of this month is the last date at which he is known to have been alive. He m. Helen, widow of Malcolm, Earl of Fife (who d. 1266), and dau. of Llewelyn, Prince of North Wales. She was living in Feb. 1294/5. He d. probably soon after 25 July 1297.

7. GRATNEY, EARL OF MAR s. and h. On 11 June 1297, as Gartney de Mar, he was acting with the Bishop of Aberdeen as joint keeper of the shire of Aberdeen, by appointment of Edward I, and received that King's thanks for his work. As (Sir) Gartenethe fiz le conte de Marre he and his colleagues reported to Edward 25 July 1297. The dates both of his succession to the Earldom 12 (probably soon after July 1297) and of his death are uncertain. He must have been dead in Sep. 1305.(i) He m., in or after 1292, Christian, sister of Robert, King of Scotland (1306-1329), and dau. of Robert (Bruce), Earl of Carrick, by Margaret, suo jure Countess of Carrick. With her he obtained the lordship (sometimes called Earldom) of Garioch. His widow m. Sir Christopher Seton. They were both in the castle of Kildrummy when it was taken by assault in 1306 (between May and Oct.), and Sir Christopher hanged and drawn for treason, by the English. She m., 3rdly, Sir Andrew Moray, of Bothwell (1298-1338), Pantler and afterwards Regent of Scotland. King David visited Kildrummy in June 1341, and Queen Joan appears to have stayed there with the Countess Christian 13 for some time during that year or 1342. She d. at a great age in 1356 or 1357.

8. DONALD, EARL OF MAR, s. and h., who succeeded when a child.14 He was brought up at the English court, 15 and so strong was his attachment to England or to the English King that when, after Bannockburn, the Earl of Hereford was exchanged for the Bishop of Glasgow, the Earl of Mar, and the wife, sister (? the Earl's mother), and daughter of Robert Bruce, Donald of Mar, on reaching Newcastle, turned back from the journey and chose to remain in England. In July 1319 he was going to Scotland in the English King's service; and in June 1320 was in Edward's train on his journey to France to do homage for Ponthien and Aquitaine. The following Feb. he had protection for a pilgrimage to Santiago. As Donald de Mar, the King's yeoman, he was appointed Keeper of Newark Castle, 30 Jan. 1321/22, and was with Edward II when he was surprised by the Scots at Byland in Oct. of that year. When the opposition to Edward II began to merge into rebellion, the Earl received two commissions to act with his whole company in the Marches of Wales against rebels and invaders. After the King's capture and deposition the Earl repaired at last to Scotland, in the hope of raising forces to restore Edward, and he led one of the three armies which entered England in July 1327, and achieved the discomfiture of the English without an encounter. After this return to his native country his own grant to Cupar and King Robert's grants to him (describing him as the King's nephew) style him EARL OF MAR.16 After the death of the Earl of Moray (July 1332) the Earl of Mar, in spite of his leanings to Edward Baliol and his almost lifelong absence in England, was chosen Regent to succeed Moray (2 Aug.), probably by reason of his close relationship to the young King. His training and experience could not have equipped him for the duties, military or political, of such a position, and he was killed on the 12th of the month in the battle of Dupplin, where the invading Baliol and the disinherited lords were victorious. 17 He m. Isabel Stewart.18 He d. as aforesaid, 12 Aug. 1332. She m., 2ndly, before 15 Sep. 1334, Geoffrey Moubray of Scotland, from whom she was divorced before Easter 1336. She m.; 3rdly (lic. to m., 3 June 1339), William Careswell, who surv. her. She d. between 15 June 1347, when she and her husband were in London, and 15 Jan. 1347/8.

SIR RIRCHARD TALBOT, of Goodrich, one of the "disinherited lords," who, in right of his wife, Elizabeth, dau. of John Comyn, of Badenoch, claimed large possessions in Scotland, received a conditional grant of Kildrummy Castle from Edward Baliol, by indenture of 17 Feb. 1333/4, in which Talbot reserved his allegiance to England. He had already, as Lord of Mar, sat with the Earls of Buchan, Atholl, and Dunbar in Baliol's parliament in Edinburgh, 10 Feb.; and in June following, as such, he witnessed at Newcastle Baliol's surrender of Berwick, Roxburgh, to Edward III.19 In Sep. 1334 he was taken by the Scots, and brought south to the marches under safe conduct from Edward III, having left hostages for his !I 2,000 ransom; and this seems to close the period of his residence in Scotland.

9. THOMAS, EARL OF MAR, only S. and h. of Earl Donald by Isabel his wife, both aforenamed. He was b. about 1330, being still under age is Jan. 1347/8, shortly after his mother's death, when he was committed to his stepfather's charge; and was a knight before the end of 1350. He must have been of age in June 1351, when he was one of the Scottish magnates coming to Newcastle to treat of peace with the English commissioners. In June 1357 he had a safe conduct to come to Edward III in England, and in Oct. of that year was one of the 8 peers of Scotland of whom 3 were always to be in residence in England as hostages for King David's ransom. Upon the death of his grandmother, Christian Bruce, he had a charter, 27 Jan. 1356/7, of the lands of Garioch in fee and heritage; and thereafter styled himself Earl of Mar and Lord of Garioch. In 1358 and 1359 he was Great Chamberlain of Scotland. From the beginning of 1359 till the autumn of 1373 he spent much time in England, paying occasional visits to France, and in 1367 obtaining protection for a pilgrimage to Santiago. On 24 Feb. 1358/9 he did homage to Edward III at Westminster, undertaking to serve him against all men, except only the person of Sir David de Bruys, his lord, in return for which he was to receive an annuity of 600 merks for life, or until the King should provide him with a marriage to his liking The Earl's relations with King David are obscure, but were certainly not always cordial after the time of his homage to Edward. In 1361 David besieged and took Kildrummy Castle, and it was still in the hands of the Crown in l364. About 1370 he was under arrest at the Bass. He m., 1stly Margaret Graham,suo jure Countess of Menteith widow of John Moray of Bothwell. She was divorced before Feb 1358/59, when the Earl was in a position to marry again. He m., 2ndly, Margaret, suo jureCountess of Angus. He d. between 22 Oct. 1373 and 21 June 1374, when William, Earl of Douglas, husband of his sister and h. Margaret, styles himself Earl of Douglas and Mar. His profligate widow, who, in his lifetime or very shortly afterwards, was mother of a bastard son, George Douglas, afterwards (1389) Earl of Angus, was living (being styled Countess of Angus and Mar) as late as 23 Mar. 1417/18.

10. MARGARET, suo jure COUNTESS OF MAR, only sister and h., m., 1stly, before 13 Nov. 1357, William (Douglas), 1st Earl of Douglas, who used the double title of Douglas and Mar.20 He d. in May 1384. She m., 2ndly, before 27 July 1388, as his 1st wife, Sir John Swinton of Swinton, slain at Homildon, 14 Sept. 1402, by whom she had no issue. She was living 5 Dec. 1389. The terms of Sir Thomas Erskine's protest leave it doubtful if she was living when it was made, 18 Mar. 1390/91. She was certainly dead before 19 Oct. 1393. JAMES (DOUGLAS), EARL OF DOUGLAS, only S. and h. ap. of the above Countess Margaret by her 1st husband, b. about 1358; suc. his father as Earl of Douglas in May 1384. He d. in his mother's lifetime, being slain at Otterburn, 10 Aug. 1388.

11. ISABEL (DOUGLAS), suo jure COUNTESS OF MAR,or COUNTESS OF MAR AND GARIOCH, 21 only da. and h. by 1st husband; b. about 1360; sue. to the peerage dignity on the death, before 19 Oct. 1393, of her mother, the Countess Margaret, having previously, on the death (1388) of her brother James, Earl of Douglas, abovenamed, suc. to the unentailed estates of the house of Douglas. She m., 1stly, before July 1388, Sir Malcolm Drummond of Drummond,22 brother of Annabell, the Queen Consort. He d., a prisoner, in 1402, before 8 Nov. She m., 2ndly, in Dec. 1404, Sir Alexander Stewart, illegitimate son of Alexander (Stewart), Earl of Buchan, 4th S. of Robert II. Soon after Isabel's succession, or before it,23 the heir presumptive took steps to protect contingent rights. 24 The Countess Isabel, as heir of the unentailed lands of Douglas and of the Earldom of Mar, was the victim of two conspiracies to wrest these from her, the first at the hands of Margaret, suo jure Countess of Angus, widow of her uncle Thomas, Earl of Mar, to secure the Douglas lands for her illegitimate son George Douglas, afterwards (1389) Earl of Angus, and the second that of Alexander Stewart, whom Isabel afterwards married, to secure the Earl- dom of Mar. This last successful conspiracy entafled personal violence Alexander is said to have seized her person as well as the castle of Kildrummy; he wrung from her a charter (12 Aug. 1404) by which, in her lawful widowhood, not compelled by force or fear, in view of a contract of marriage between them, she granted to Alexander Stewart, eldest [bastard] son of Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan, the whole Earldom of Mar25 and of Garioch.(a) This grant, iniquitous in that it debarred the heirs presumptive of Mar from the succession, and denuded Isabel herself of all but dower in her Earldom, should Alexander predecease her, never received the Royal confirmation necessary to render it effective and was cancelled by Alexander's surrender of the castle and its contents to her in Sept. following.26 On 9 Dec. 1404 the Countess made him a grant of the Earldom, to hold to him and their heirs, failing whom to her lawful heirs ex utraque parte, reserving to them both the freehold of the tenements for their lives. This was rendered valid by Royal confirmation, 21 Jan. foilowing. The marriage took place after 5 Dec. 1404, very probably on the day of the execution of the charter, 9 Dec., certainly before 2 Jan. 1404/5. The Countess d. in Aug. or Sep. 1408.27

II bis. ALEXANDER (STEWART), EARL OF MAR, or EARL OF MAR AND GARIOCH, by virtue of the abovesaid charter of 9 Dec. 1404, and its confirmation by Robert III, 21 Jan. 1404/05. The stories of the wildness of his early life are confirmed by the steps he took to secure the Earldom, and by an order of Council in Jan. 1398/99, when he and his brothers were prisoners in Stirling Castle in connection with a plundering expedition of Highland caterans. In Jan. 1404/05 he was sheriff depute of Aberdeen. He was active in arms both by sea and land, and also carried out several diplomatic missions. In 1405 he was blockading the coast of Northumberland. In Apr. 1406 and again in Sept., as Earl of Mar and Garioch, he had a safe conduct from Henry IV to come to England to perform a feat of arms in that King's service.

SIR THOMAS STEWART, MASTER OF MAR, bastard s. of the above, under the confirmations of the Duke of Albany and of James I, in possession of the Earldom in tail male. Before 1424 he had a grant from his father of the lordship of Badenoch. He m., about 1425, Elizabeth, widow of John (Stewart), Earl of Buchan, who d. 17 Aug. 1424, and dau. of Archibald (Douglas), Earl or Douglas. His widow, who had dower of the earldom though the said Thomas was never Earl of Mar and held the Garioch underjoint feoffment to her and her said late husband, m., 3rdly, as his 1st wife, William(SINCLAIR), EARL OF ORKNEY, afterwards Earl or Caithness, who d. between Martinmas 1479 and Whitsunday 1480. She d. at Martinmas 1451.

12. ROBERT (ERSKINE), EARL OF MAR, cousin and heir ex parte materna of Isabel, suo jure COUNTESS OF MAR, being s. and h. of Sir Thomas ERSKINE of Alloa and Dun, by his 2nd wife, Janet, both abovenamed, suc. his father between Martinmas 1403 and Whitsuntide 1404. On the death, 1435, of Alexander, Earl of Mar, Erskine sought to be retoured heir to the Countess Isabel of half the lands, and was so retoured 22 Apr. and 16 Oct. 1438.28 A writ of saisine issued and he was infeoffed thereunder 21 Nov. 1438. As representative of the elder coheir to the lands the chief messuage, Kudrummy Castle, carrying with it the superiority and dignity of the Earldom, fell to him. He was at that time keeper of Dunbarton Castle. Being thus lawfully in possession of the dignity, Erskine dealt with the property as Earl of Mar, but the Crown did not acknowledge his title to the Earldom, and retained possession of Kildrummy Castle;29 Erskine died between 7 Sept. 1451 and 6 Nov. 1452, 5 years before the long struggle for possession of his Earldom ended, 5 Nov. 1457, in the defeat of his right.30

I. LORD JOHN STEWART, 4th and yst. S. of the reigning King, JAMES II, by Mary, dau. of Arnold, DUKE OF GUELDRES, was b. (after Oct. 1456) probably in July 1457, and was cr., between 21 June 1458 and 25 June 1459, EARL OF MAR AND GARIOCH. He signed (variously) as Jhonne Erll of Mar and Gerwyacht two deeds, 18 Nov. 1475 and 1 Mar. 1476/77.31 He d. unm., in 1479 (after attending the Parl. which met in March), in the Canongate, Edinburgh. His honours became extinct at his death. 32

THOMAS COCHRANE (whose parentage is unknown), a mason or architect, a favourite of James III (as early as 1476), took a great part in fomenting the King's displeasure against his brothers, and was, on the death of the yst. thereof (as abovementioned), rewarded with his estate, and is said by some writers of the next generation to have been Cr. EARL OF MAR in 1479 or 1480. 33 He figures only twice in records, on 22 Jan. 1479/80 and on 2 May 1483. He was hanged (with six others) in sight of the King, over the bridge of Lauder, in July 1482, by several of the Scottish nobles whom his sudden rise had disgusted. At his death his peerage dignity, if it ever existed, lapsed to the Crown.

I. ALEXANDER (STEWART), DUKE OF ALBANY, elder br. of John (STEWART), EARL OF MAR, abovenamed, being 2nd s. of JAMES II, was, about Jan. 1482/83, Cr. Earl of Mar and Garioch, but was forfeited a few months later, and is said to have d. in 1485.

I. LORD JOHN STEWART, 3rd and yst. s. of the reigning King, JAMES III, by Margaret, dau. of Christian I, King of Denmark, was b. between July 1479 and July 1480, and was Cr., 2 Mar. 1485/86, Earl of Mar and Garioch. He d. unm., 11 Mar. 1502/03, when all his honours became extinct.34

I. JAMES (STEWART), EARL OF MORAY [S.] (who had been so Cr. 30 Jan. 1561/62), was (a week later) Cr., 7 Feb. 1561/62, EARL OF MAR,35 with a clause that he and his heirs male should be called by that title. He, however, resigned the same a few months later, sitting in Parl.on 10 Sep. 1562 as Earl of Mar, and on 15 Oct. following as Earl of Moray.

During an interval of rather more than a century i.e. between 5 Nov. 1457 and 23 June 1565, when the Earldom was, under the retour of the former date (subsequently found to be utterly erroneous),36 held by the Crown or its grantees-the de jure heirs thereof under the royally confirmed charter of Dec. 1404, by which the descent of the Earldom has ever since 1565 been regulated, were as follows.

13. THOMAS (ERSKINE), LORD ERSKINE , who may be considered as de jure EARL OF MAR, only S. and h. of Robert Erskine, who in 1435 became Earl of Mar, as abovementioned. In an indenture, Circa 1439, between his father My Lord of Mar, himself and Alexander Forbes, he is called Master of Mar. He d. in or shortly before 1493. See fuller particulars under Erskine, Barony.

14. ALEXANDER (ERSKINE), LORD ERSKINE, who may be considered as de jure EARL OF MAR, only 5. and h. He d. between 10 Mar. 1507/8 and 10 May 1509. See fuller particulars under Erskine, Barony.

15. ROBERT (ERSKINE), LORD ERSKINE, who may be considered as de jure EARL OF MAR, 1st s. and h. He was slain at Flodden, 9 Sep. 1513. See fuller particulars under Erskine, Barony.

16. JOHN (ERSKINE), LORD ERSKINE, who may be considered as de jure EARL OF MAR, 2nd but 1st sury. s. and h. He d. between 11 July and Nov. 1555. See fuller particulars under Erskine, Barony.

17 and 1JOHN (ERSKINE), LORD ERSKINE , de jure EARL OF MAR, 3rd but 1st surv. s. and h. 37He was Abbot of Dryburgh and Commendator of Inchmahome, 1548. He suc. his father in 1555 both in the peerage and also as Keeper of the castles of Edinburgh and Stirling,38 holding Edinburgh Castle with great impartiality as between the party of the Court and of the People until 49 Mar. 1566/67. Though one of the Reformers, he refused to sign the Book of Discipline in 1560. As the first step towards obtaining the restitution of the Earldom, he was by a general service,39 5 May 1565, found heir to Robert late Earl of Mar and Garioch and Lord Erskine, the grandfather of his great-grandfather; whereafter Queen Mary by charter, 23 June 1565, restored to him, his heirs and assigns hereditarily all and whole the said Earidom of Mar, together with all the lands thereof which yet remained in the Crown and all right over such as had been alienated, as also the lands of the Lordship of Gareach, provision being made that foras- much as Kildrummy, the ancient chief messuage of the Earldom, had been alienated by the Crown, the manor of Migvie should serve for the seisin of Mar and the castle of Dunnydeer for that of Garioch. The warrant40 for seisin was dated 24 June 1565 and when (but not before) that was accomplished, in about three weeks time, he became legally entitled to the dignity, and, accordingly, appeared at the Council, 1 Aug. 1565, as EARL OF MAR.41 The Royal charter of 23 June 1565 was ratified in Parl. 19 Apr. 1567, reciting that he was lauchfullie discendit of the ancient heretouris of the said erledom, and had the vndowbtit heretable richt thairof. The said charter was also proceeded upon in an Act in favour of his son in 1587. The restored Earl received in June 1566 the custody of the newly born Prince, afterwards James VI, whom he removed to the castle of Stirling, giving up, 19 Mar. 1566/7, the custody of Edinburgh Castle to the Earl of Botliwell, for which act he was exonerated by Parl. 16 Apr. 1567. He took part against the Queen, signing, 16 June 1567, the order for her committal to Loch Leven Castle, and being, in July following, one of the Government CounciL He carried the infant James VI at his Coronation at Stirling, 29 July 1567. On the death of the Regent Earl of Lennox he was elected Regent of Scotland, 5 Sep. 1571, and so continued (being also custodian of the young King) tm his death a year later, though the virtual direction of the affairs of the Realm was with his Lieut. Gen. of the Forces, the Earl of Morton. He m., before 29 Jan. 1556/57, Anabel, dau. of Sir William Murray, of Tullibardine, by Catherine, dau. of Sir Duncan Cambell, of Glenorchy. He d. 28 Oct. 1572, at Stirling. His will, dat. 9 Aug. 1568, at Stirling, directing his burial to be at Alloa, pr. 8 Nov. 1575, at Edinburgh. His widow 42 d. Feb. 1602/03.(d) Will dat. 16 Nov. 1609, at Stirling, pr. 5 Aug. 1609.

18 and 2 JOHN (ERSKINE), EARL OF MAR, only s. and h., b. 1562, being 16 in Apr. 1578; styled Lord Erskine from 1565; was served heir, 3 Mar. 1572/73, de toto et integro Cornitatu de Alar. He was educated, together with James VI (of whom his mother and his uncle, Sir Alexander Erskine, of Gogar, had the charge), at Stirling Castle, and, with one brief interruption, was his lifelong friend and confidant. On 26 Apr. 1578 he possessed himself of Stirling Castle and of the King's person. In Aug. 1582 he took part in the raid of Ruthven, for which the raiders were exonerated by the P.C. on 19 Oct.,43 but this order was cancelled in Dec. 1583, the cancellation being confirmed by the Parl. which met 19 May 1584. Meanwhile Mar had been banished from the three Kingdoms, 31 Jan. 1583/84, but was back in Scotland in March, and with other banished lords took Stirling Castle, 17 Apr., but about a week later they dispersed, Mar fleeing to England. On 22 Aug. 1584 he and his wife Agnes were forfeited by the Parl., but he presented himself before the King at Stirling, 4 Nov. 1585, and was received into favour. He was restored 10 Dec. 1585 to his honours and estates, as also to the command of Stirling Castle. On 29 July 1587, in response to his petition,44 an Act of Parl. was passed ratifying the restoration in 1565 of the Earldom of Mar to his father. In 1593 he was a commissioner for the trial of the Catholic peers. In Feb. 1593/94 he and his mother were appointed Keepers and Governors of Prince Henry in Stirling Castle, 45 where he was born. While guardian of the Prince-till 1603-he received several grants of Abbey lands. Ambassador to England, 1601.46 In 1602 he was on a Council of War to advise especially with regard to helping Elizabeth against the Irish rebels. He followed King James to England in 1603, and, being in high favour, received further grants of English lands. P.C. 4 May 1603; nom. K.G. 25 June 1603, inst. 9 Juiy.47 He was Capt. of Edinburgh Castle 1605, and of Stirling Castle 1607. A Commissioner for the Isles 48 in 1609. He was Cr., 10 June 1609, LORD CARDROSS, with power of nomination of that dignity, which power he exercised in favour of his 3rd son, Henry Erskine. See Erskines of Cardross. on 20 May 1613 he had a grant in fee of the offices of Constable and Judiciar of Brechin. In 1616 he was one of the councillors specially summoned to discuss the conditions of Prince Henry's marriage. High Treasurer 9 Dec. 1616 to Mar. 1630, when he resigned.49 He entertained the King in Scotland in 1617 with great magnificence. He was P.C. to Prince Charles in Scotland, Aug. 1619; and bore the Sceptre at the opening of Parl. in Edinburgh, 17 June 1617, and in July 1621. On 5 Mar. 1622 he had licence, being continually employed in the King's service in Scotland, to absent himself from the usual attendance at the feasts of the Order of the Garter to be held 22-24 Apr. He attended the funeral of James I. He devoted himself for nearly 50 years, but more especially during the last 15 years thereof (1620-34), to the recovery (under the service to his father of 5 May 1565) of such of the family estates as had been alienated by the Crown (1435-1565), for which recovery the reduction by the Court of Session of the several charters so granting them was necessary, the Earl's rignt or regress being protected by the Act ot 29 July 1587. His efforts were successful, the vast estate of Kildrummy, which had been alienated to the family of Elphinstone, being among the lands so recovered. In the course of these proceedings the Court of Session affirmed in the most solemn manner the validity of the charter of 9 Dec. 1404, and of the retours of I438. The "ranking" of the Earldom of Mar was settled, during his lifetime, at the Decreet of Ranking 50 in 1606. He m., 1stly, at Kincardine, between 29 Oct. and 1 Nov. 1580, Anne or Agnes, 3rd dau. of David (Drummond), 2nd LORD Drummond, being 2nd dau. by his 2nd wife, Lilian, dau. of William (Ruthven), 2nd Lord Ruthvan. She d. 23 Dec. 1587, and was bur. 9 Jan. 1587/88, at Alloa. He m., 2ndly, 7 Dec. 1592, Mary, 2nd dau. of Esme (Stuart), 1st Duke of Lennox, by Katherine, dau. of Guillaume De Balsac, Seigneur D'Entragues. He d. at Stirling, 14 Dec. 1634, aged about 72, and was bur. 7 Apr. 1635, at Stirling.51 Will dat. 1 Mar. 1634, pr. at Stirling, Aug. 1635 and Oct. I636.52 He was suc. in the Barony of Cardross according to his nomination in the rest of his honours as below. His widow d. 11 May 1644.53 Will dat. 8 may 1644.

19 and 3. JOHN (ERSKINE), EARL OF MAR, s. and h., by 1st wife, being only child of his mother, 54 b. about 1585; styled Lord Erskine till 1634; in 1602 he went to France travelling; was, with many others, Cr. M.A. at Oxford 30 Aug. 160; K.B. 2 June 1610; Gov. of Edinburgh Castle, 1615-38; P.C. to the Prince, 20 Aug. 1617. On 8 Mar. 1620 he had a patent of monopoly of sealing all hides tanned in Scotland. An Extraordinary Lord of Session, 1620-26 and 1628-30; he attended the funeral of James I; member of the Supreme (Ecclesiastical) Commission, 1634; served h. to his father 25 Mar. 1635. In 1638 he sold to the King the heritable Sheriffdom of Stirlingshire; P.C., by the Parl., 1641, but joined the King's party in that year. His estates were sequestrated, and having purchased estates in Ireland (from the sale of lands in Scotland), he lost that property also in the Irish rebellion. He m., 6 Feb. 1609/10 (cont. 19 Dec. 1609 to 18 Jan. 1609/1o), Jean,55 2nd da. of Francis (Hay), Earl of Erroll, by his 3rd wife, Elizabeth, dau. of William (Douglas), Earl of Morton. He d. between Jan. and Oct. 1653. His widow d. 24 May 1668. Will dat. 6 May, pr. 25 Sept. 1668 at Stirling.

20 and 4. JOHN (ERSKINE), EARL OF MAR, s. and h.;styled LORD ERSKINE 1634-53; was in command of the Scottish army in 1640, but joined the King's side in 1641; was at the rout at Philiphaugh, 13 Sept. 1645, and was fined 24,000 merks; had a commission to raise a regt. of Horse for the King 29 Jan. 1651; suc. to the peerage 1653, though his estates continued sequestrated till the Restoration. 56 Capt. and Gov. of Stirling Castle, 1661; P.C. 13 Feb. 1660/01, sworn 13 July 1661. Capt. Scots Guards on their first raising, Sep. 1662. He m., 1stly (cont. 1641), his 1st cousin, Elizabeth, 1st dau. of Walter (Scott), 1st Earl of Buccleuch, by Mary, dau. of Francis (Hay), Earl of Erroll, abovenamed. She, who was b. Nov., and bap. 3 Dec. 1621 d. before 23 July 1647. He m., 2ndly (cont. 8 Oct. 1647), Jean, 1st day. of George (MacKenzie), 2nd Earl of Seaforth, by Barbara, dau. of Arthur (Forbes), 10th Lord Forbes. He d. in Sept. 1668, at Alloa, and was bur. 11 Sept. 1668. His widow m., as 2nd wife, Andrew, 3rd Lord Fraser, who d. 22 May 1674. She was served h. to her terce 15 Sept. 1674.

21 and 5. CHARLES ERSKINE, EARL OF MAR, s. and h., b. 19 Oct. 1650; styled LORD ERSKINE 1653-68. The debts and fines of his father and grandfather compelled him to alienate a great part of his estates, including the Barony of Ersidne in Renfrewshire, the original possession of his family. He was Keeper of Stirling Castle 57 in succession to his father, 1668 to 1688. Col. of Militia of Stirling and Clackmannan, 29 May 1676. He raised a regt., later the 21st Foot (now Scots Fusiliers), of which he was Col. 1678-86; P.C. 1682. In 1686 he voted against the Act relaxing the penal laws against the Rom. Catholics; was removed from the P.C. 4 Sep. 1686, but on it again 24 Oct. 1688. In Aug. 1688 he was ordered to take measures defensive and offensive against the Highland rebgs, who did much damage to his property. He was invited by William of Orange to attend a meeting of the Scottish Estates in Edinburgh to be held on 14 Mar. 1688/89. He m. (cont. 2 Apr. 1674) Mary, dau. of George (Maule), 2nd Earl of Panmure, by Jean, dau. of John (Campbell), Earl of Loudoun. He d. 23 May 1689, suddenly, at Alloa, and was bur. there, aged 38. His widow m., 29 Apr. 1697, at Alloa, Col. John Erskine, 2nd s. of the Hon. Sir Charles Erskine, of Alva. She was living i6 Mar. 1707/08.

22 and 6. JOHN (ERSKINE), EARL OF MAR and LORD ERSKINE, s. and h., b. at Alloa, Feb. 1675, and styled LORD ERSKINE till 1689, being left heir to more debt than estate. He took his seat in Parl. 8 Sep. 1696, protesting against the calling of any Earl before him in the Roll.58 P.C. 1697; Keeper of Stirling Castle, 31 Jan. 1699; Col. of a regt. of Foot, 1702-06; one of the Commissioners, 1705, for the Union and primarily responsible for the carrying of that measure; K.T. 10 Aug. 1706; Sec. of State, 1705-09; and as Secretary had to deal with the French invasion of Scotland in 1708. After the Union he was made Keeper of the Signet, with a pension; Rep. Peer, Tory, 13 Feb. 1707, being re-elected 1708, 1710, and 1713. P.C. [G.B.] 20 May 1707 to Sep. 1714, and Sec. of State for Scotland, Sept. 1713 to Sept. 1714. He signed the proclamation of King George I, for whom he procured a loyal address from the Highland clans, but by whom he was dismissed from office. He then joined the Stuart cause, and proclaimed King James at Braemar, 6 Sep. 1715, and was his Commander-in-Chief. At the head of about 12,000 men he was defeated, 13 Nov. 1715, at Sheriffmuir, through the entire absence of common precaution or even any definite arrangements,(Dict. Nat. Biog.) by about 4,000, and forced to return to Perth, where he attended the Chevalier at his public entry, 2 Jan. 1715/16. With that Prince he fled the country, 4 Feb. following, and was attainted by Act of Parl., 77 Feb. 1715/16, as from 19 Jan., whereby all his honours (and his estate, valued at !I 1,679 per annum) became forfeited. He accompanied the titular King James III to Rome, by whom he was, 22 Oct. 1715, Cr. DUKE OF MAR, MARQUESS ERSKINE, EARL OF KILDRUMMIE, VISCOUNT GARIOCH, LORD OF ALLOA, FERRITON AND FORREST, with rem. to his heirs in tail general, and, 8 Apr. 1716, nom. K.G On 10 Nov. 1717 he was cr. by the titular King Baron of (__) and EARL OF MAR, co. York, with rem. to heirs male of his body, and finally, 13 Dec. 1722, he was cr. by the same prince DUKE OF MAR. He was chief adviser59 to the titular King till 1724, when, after a long series of intrigues, he finally abandoned his cause. He m., 1stly, 6 Apr. 1703 (lic. Bp. of London), at Twickenham, Midx., Margaret, 1St dau. of Thomas (Hay), 7th Earl of Kinnoull, by Elizabeth, dau. of William (Drummond), 1st Viscount Strthallan. She, who was b. 30 Sep. 1686, d. at Dupplin, 25 Apr., and was bur. 3 May 1707, at Alloa, aged 20. Fun. entry at Lyon office. He m., 2ndly, 20 July 1714, at Acton, Midx., Frances, dau. of Evelyn (Pierrepont), 1st Duke of Kingston-Upon-Hull, by his 1st wife, Mary, dau. of William (Feilding), Earl of Denbigh. He d. May 1732, at Aix-la-Chapelle, aged 57. His widow, who had been declared a lunatic in Mar. 1730, d. 4, and was bur. 9 Mar. 1761, at Marylebone.

THOMAS ERSKI NE, styled LORD ERSKINE, 1st and only surv. s. and h. ap. by 1st wife, b. about 1705; educ. at Westm. School; M.P. (Whig) for Stirling Burghs, 1728-34; for Co Stirling, Feb. to June 1747, and for Co. Clackmannan, 1747-54; Capt. in the Army, and Commissary of Stores at Gibraltar, 1729. Owing to the attainder of 1716, he did not suc. to the peerage at his father's death in May 1732, but in 1739 the family estate of Alloa, which had been forfeited, was conveyed to him. 60 Grand Master of Freemasons 1749-50. He m., 1 Oct. 1741, at Hopetoun House, Charlotte, 8th dau. of Charles (Hope), 1st Earl of Hopetoun, by Henrietta, dau. of William (Johnstone), 1st Marquess of Annandale. He d. 16 Mar. 1766, aged about 60, at Gayfield. At his death the Jacobite creation of 1717, and presumably that of 1722, became extinct, but the Dukedom and other titles conferred in 1715 passed, in accordance with the rem., to his sister Frances. Will pr. 8 Sep. 1766. His widow, who was b. 4 Mar. 1720, d. 24 Nov. 1788, in Edinburgh.

23 and 7. JoHN FRANCIS ERSKINE, of Alloa, Co Clackmannan, s. and h. of James ERSKINE, Knight Marischal, by (his 1st cousin) Frances, only dau. and (from 1766) heir of line of John, the attainted Earl of Mar, abovenamed (being only child of her mother, the Earl's 2nd wife), which James Erskine was 3rd but (from 1776) eldest surv. s. and h. of the Hon. James Erskine, of Grange, next br. to the said John, Earl of Mar, abovenamed. He, who was b. 1741, was thus grandson and heir general as well as great-nephew and heir male collateral, to the said Earl; was an officer in the Army, 1757-70 (retiring as Capt. 1st Horse),and suc. to the family estate of Alloa on the death, 20 June 1776, of his mother, Lady Frances Erskine, on whom they had been entailed. He m., 17 Mar. 1770, at Upway, Dorset, Frances, dau. of Charles Floyer, Gov. of Madras, by Mary, dau, of (__) Berriman. She d. 20 Dec. 1798, at Alloa. At length, in his 83rd year, he was, as grandson and lineal representative of John, the forfeited Earl of Mar, 61 restored by Act of Parl., 62 17 June 1824, being therein styled "John Francis Erskine of Mar," to the Honors, Dignities and Titles of Earl of Mar, and became thus EARL OF MAR.63 He d. suddenly, 20 Aug. 1825, aged 84, in Shadwick Place, Edinburgh. Will pr. Jan. 1853.

24 and 8. JOHN THOMAS (ERSKINE), EARL OF MAR, s. and h., b. 18 June 1772; styled LORD ERSKINE 1824-25. He m., 17 Mar. 1795, at Dalswinton, Co. Dumfries, Janet, dau. of Patrick Miller, of Dalswinton afsd., br. of Sir Thomas Miller, Bart., so Cr. in 1788. She d. 25 Aug. 1825. He d. 20 Sep. 1828, at Alloa House, aged 56.

25 and 9. JOHN FRANCIS MILLER (ERSKINE), EARL OF MAR, only s. and h., b. 28 Dec. 1795, at Dalswinton; educ. at Westm. School; was many years in the Army, serving at Quatre Bras and Waterloo; styled Lord Erskine 1825-28. He suc. on the death of his distant cousin, Methven (Erskine), Earl of Kellie, 3 Dec. 1829, to the dignities of EARL OF KELLIE [1619], VISCOUNT FENTOUN [1606 and 1619], BARON ERSKINE OF DIRLETOWNE [1604], and LORD DIRLETOUN [1619], in the Peerage of Scotland, decision in favour of his right thereto being given 3 Sept. 1835. He m., 24 Apr. 1827, in Edinburgh, Philadelphia Stuart, 1st dau. of Sir Charles Granville Stuart-Menteith, 1st Ban., of Closehurn, Co. Dumfries, by Ludivina, da. of Thomas Loughnan. She d. 15 Feb. 1853, at Alloa House. He d. there, 19, and was bar. there, 26 June 1866, in his 71st year. At his death the Earldom of Kellie and the honours inherited therewith devolved on his cousin and heir male, as also did the right to that Earldom of Mar which, according to the decision of the House of Lords on 26 Feb. 1875, was held to have been Cr. de novo by patent in 1565 in tail male. See KELLIE.The right of inheritance as heir of line to that Earldom of Mar which, before 9 Dec. 1404, had descended to Isabella, Countess of Mar.

26. JOHN FRANCIS ERSKINE (GOODEVE-ERSKINE, formerly GOODEVE) EARL OF MAR [1393 or 1404] in the Peerage of Scotland, nephew and heir of line, being restored s. and h. of William James Goodeve, of Clifton, Co. Somerset, a Doctor of Medicine (d. 1861), by Frances Jemima (d. 20 June 1842), 1st sister of John Francis Miller (Erskine), 26th Earl of Mar. He was b. 29 Mar. 1836, at Clifton; educ. at the Grammar School, Bristol, circa 1848-54, and at Queens Coll., Cambridge; M.A. 1860, and comitatis causa, at Oxford, 19 June 1862; in Holy Orders, and sometime Curate of Tedstone Wafer, co. Hereford. He may be regarded as de jure Earl of Mar on the death of his maternal uncle, 19 June i866, when he assumed the name of Erikine after that of Goodeve; but inasmuch as, owing to the judgment of the House of Lords, 26 Feb. 1875 (whereby an Earldom of Mar, hitherto unheard of, was supposed to have been Cr. in 1565, with a rem. to heirs male of the body), doubts might exist whether the ancient honour, dignity and title of peerage of Earl of Mar, which descended to Isabella, Countess of Mar, was, or was not, previously to 1565 by any lawful means surrendered or merged in the Crown, 64 though (as it was also recited) until the decision of 1875 the same was commonly reputed to be still subsisting, and to have been enjoyed and possessed by John, Lord Erskine, his heirs and successors, an Act was passed 6 Aug. 1885 (which practically overruled the finding of 1875), whereby, In case of the former contingency, THE SAID JOHN FRANCIS ERSKINE GOODEVE-ERSKINE AND ALL OTHER PERSONS, who would be entitled after him to succeed to the honours, dignities and titles of peerage anciently belonging to or enjoyed and held with the territorial Earldom of Mar, which so descended to Isabella, Countess of Mar, as aforesaid, in case the said honours, dignities and titles had never been by any lawful means forfeited or surrendered, or in case (being so forfeited or surrendered) they had been expressly and effectually restored to the said John, Lord Erskine, and his lawful heirs general, by the hereinbefore recited charter [1565], of Mary, Queen of the Scots, SHALL BE AND THEY ARE HEREBY RESTORED TO THE SAID ANCIENT HONOURS, DIGNITIES AND TITLES OF PEERAGE, as fully and effectually to all intents and purposes as if the same had without any impediment descended to the said John, Lord Erskine, or had been duly expressly and effectually restored to the said John, Lord Erskine, and his lawful heirs general by the said charter of Mary Queen of the Scots or by other means effectual in law.The said Earldom was, 65 accordingly, ordered to be called at the election of Scottish Rep. Peers (in its old place) next after that of Sutherland. Rep. Peer 1886, 1895, 1900 (Conservative). He m., 12 Sep. 1866, at St. Maughans, Llangattock-Vibon-Avel, Co. Monmouth, Alice Mary Sinclair, 1st dau. of John Hamilton, of Hilston Park, Co. Monmouth, by Anne, dau. of Pryce Jones, of Cyfronydd, Co. Montgomery. She d. 6, and was bur. 9 June 1924, in Monaco Cemetery. He d. 17, and was bur. 20 June 1930, in Monaco Cemetery, aged 94.

Family Estates: The Restitution Act of 1885 expressly declares that nothing therein contained shall affect or in any manner prejudice the right or title thereto of any the heirs in the direct male line of the said John, Lord Erskine.